Red Teaming

Command and Control Using Active Directory

‘Exotic’ command and control (C2) channels always interest me. As defenses start to get more sophisticated, standard channels that have been stealthy before (like DNS) may start to lose their efficacy. I’m always on the lookout for non-obvious, one-way (or ideally two-way) communication methods. This post will cover a proof of concept for an internal C2 approach that uses standard …

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KeeThief – A Case Study in Attacking KeePass Part 2

Note: this post and code were co-written with my fellow ATD workmate Lee Christensen (@tifkin_) who developed several of the interesting components of the project. The other week I published the “A Case Study in Attacking KeePass” post detailing a few notes on how to operationally “attack” KeePass installations. This generated an unexpected amount of responses, …

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A Case Study in Attacking KeePass

[Edit 7/1/16] I wanted to make a few clarifying notes as there have been some questions surrounding this writeup: You only need administrative rights to execute any WMI subscriptions and/or gather files from user folders NOT normally accessible from the current user context (not everything described here needs admin rights). KeePass is not “bad” or “vulnerable” …

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Where My Admins At? (GPO Edition)

[Edit 6/14/16] I was mistaken on a few points in the Local Account Management – Restricted Groups section, which I have now corrected. Thanks to @DougSec for the question/catch. Enumerating the membership of the Administrators local group on various computers is something we do on most of our engagements. This post will cover how to do this with Group Policy …

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Running LAPS with PowerView

A year ago, Microsoft released the Local Administrator Password Solution (LAPS) which aims to prevent the reuse of local administrator passwords by setting, “…a different, random password for the common local administrator account on every computer in the domain.” This post will cover a brief background on LAPS and how to use PowerView to perform some specific LAPS-specific enumeration. Sean Metcalf has …

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Abusing GPO Permissions

A friend (@piffd0s) recently ran into a specific situation I hadn’t encountered before: the domain controllers and domain admins of the environment he was assessing were extremely locked down, but he was able to determine that a few users had edit rights on a few specific group policy objects (GPOs). After a bit of back and forth, …

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Local Group Enumeration

I’ve found that one of the most useful features of PowerView (outside of its user hunting capabilities) is its ability to enumerate local group membership on remote machines. I’ve spoken about this briefly before, and gave some details on its utilization of the ADSI WinNT Provider in the “Pass-the-Hash is Dead: Long Live Pass-the-Hash” post. My colleague @sixdub …

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Targeted Plaintext Downgrades with PowerView

Following my pattern of weaponizing Sean Metcalf‘s work in PowerView, I’m here with another update. Sean recently released a post titled “Dump Clear-Text Passwords for All Admins in the Domain Using Mimikatz DCSync“. He describes a legacy feature for Active Directory user accounts called ‘reversible encryption’. According to Microsoft, “This policy is required when using Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol …

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Sheets on Sheets on Sheets

After a few requests, I’ve built out a series of cheat sheets for a few of the tools I help actively develop- PowerView, PowerUp, and Empire. I hope to illustrate the full functionality available in each tool and provide a quick reference for new adopters (as well as seasoned operators). PDF versions of these will be kept in …

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