Red Teaming

Not A Security Boundary: Breaking Forest Trusts

For years Microsoft has stated that the forest was the security boundary in Active Directory. For example, Microsoft’s “What Are Domains and Forests?” document (last updated in 2014) has a “Forests as Security Boundaries” section which states (emphasis added): Each forest is a single instance of the directory, the top-level Active Directory container, and a …

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From Kekeo to Rubeus

Kekeo, the other big project from Benjamin Delpy after Mimikatz, is an awesome code base with a set of great features. As Benjamin states, it’s external to the Mimikatz codebase because, “I hate to code network related stuff ; It uses an external commercial ASN.1 library inside.“ Kekeo provides (feature list not complete): The ability to request …

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Operational Guidance for Offensive User DPAPI Abuse

I’ve spoken about DPAPI (the Data Protection Application Programming Interface) a bit before, including how KeePass uses DPAPI for its “Windows User Account” key option. I recently dove into some of the amazing work that Benjamin Delpy has done concerning DPAPI and wanted to record some operational notes on abusing DPAPI with Mimikatz. Note: I am focusing on …

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GhostPack

Anyone who has followed myself or my teammates at SpecterOps for a while knows that we’re fairly big fans of PowerShell. I’ve been involved in offensive PowerShell for about 4 years, @mattifestation was the founder of PowerSploit and various defensive projects, @jaredcatkinson has been writing defensive PowerShell for years, and many of my teammates (@tifkin_, …

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Offensive Encrypted Data Storage (DPAPI edition)

Last September I wrote a post titled “Offensive Encrypted Data Storage” that detailed an approach to securely storing data on disk during offensive engagements. I recently revisited the idea a bit while once again thinking about disk artifacts, and remembered about DPAPI. The Windows Data Protection API (DPAPI) provides a simplified set of cryptographic functions …

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Pass-the-Hash Is Dead: Long Live LocalAccountTokenFilterPolicy

Nearly three years ago, I wrote a post named “Pass-the-Hash is Dead: Long Live Pass-the-Hash” that detailed some operational implications of Microsoft’s KB2871997 patch. A specific sentence in the security advisory, “Changes to this feature include: prevent network logon and remote interactive logon to domain-joined machine using local accounts…” led me to believe (for the …

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